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Albert Einstein: a short biography

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Born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, , Einstein was not an especially remarkable student; in fact, his parents, who ran a company that made and sold electrical equipment, even suspected that he was mentally retarded.

In his family moved to Milan, Italy, leaving him behind to finish school. Instead, Einstein stopped attending school and independently engaged in studying mathematics and other scientific disciplines. His subsequent job at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern left him time to continue scientific investigations of his own, which resulted in a series of papers, one of which was accepted as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Zurich in His discoveries proving the existence of molecules and light's dual nature—as a wave or a particle—were eclipsed by his Special Theory of Relativity.

Einstein served as a professor of physics at universities in Zurich and Czechoslovakia. In he was appointed professor at the University of Berlin and director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics. There he developed the General Theory of Relativity and adopted his lifelong pacifist position.

Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in , in addition to many other awards. A year after he was born he moved to Munich, Germany. Einstein showed no signs of being a genius at an early age. He did not like to receive instructions in school, therefore his education had to begin at home. He would still have to attend school in Munich though, and would get exceptional grades especially in Mathematics; however, he hated it, a teacher suggested him to leave and just study at home because of his dislike toward the school.

Merely his presence caused the other students to disrespect the teachers. A story that Einstein loved to tell was that he once saw a compass and saw that the needle had a northward swing. He knew there was something behind it and he wanted to know the hidden mysteries.

He would help him and encourage him to go on and never give up. Einstein loved to solve the algebraic and geometrical problems on his own. At the age of twelve he read a couple of books on Euclid Geometry and learned the whole thing on his own.

At the age of fourteen he read a few science books and the books had an immense influence on his life. At the age of fifteen his parents moved to Milan, Italy, Einstein took this opportunity to drop out of the school in Munich.

He spent a year just living with his parents and reading. Albert then realized that he needed to do something in life. He decided to finish school in Aarau, Switzerland. In , he tried to enter into the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology a type of university. He took the entrance exam, failed it, and passed it the second time. In the institute Albert realized that his true love was Physics. Albert hated that school also, so much was his dislike toward the school, that he would not even attend the classes.

He would rather stay home and do experiments and have his friend take notes for him, then he would just study the notes on his own and take the tests. Albert graduated from the university with not so prestigious grades, he tried to get a job at a university as a professor, but failed to find one.

Kinematic Analysis and Dynamical Modeling". Thirty Years of Observations and Analysis , July Journal of Chemical Education. Journal of Chemical Physics.

E4 and E17; Chap. E3, E11, and E15; Chap. E1 and E4; Chap. E24 and E47; Chap. E16 and E28; Chap. E15 and E30; Chap. E6 and E7; Chap. E10 and E33; Chap. E44, E45 and E46; Chap. E48 and E50; Chap.

E27 and E31; Chap. E15 and E44; Chap. E28 and E29; Chap. E26; Chap 26, ref. E42, E44 and E53; Chap. E31 and E32; Chap. E6 and E11; Chap. Writings, — English translation supplement; translated by Anna Beck, with Peter Havas, consultant ed.

Writings, — English translation supplement; translated by Anna Beck, with Don Howard, consultant ed. Writings, — English translation supplement; translated by Alfred Engel, with Engelbert Schucking, consultant ed. Subtle is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein. Schilpp, Paul Arthur, ed. Harper and Brothers Publishers Harper Torchbook edition.

Important publications in science. Philosophy Antiquarian science books. Retrieved from " https: CS1 German-language sources de Use mdy dates from September All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from September Articles with permanently dead external links Articles with Bibliowiki links Articles with German-language external links Featured lists.

Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 4 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Annalen der Physik ser. Once parameterized, his theory makes reasonably accurate predictions for heavier hydrophobic molecules, but fails for lighter molecules.

No data are available for comparison. Einstein characterizes these two papers as "worthless" in Review of Giuseppe Belluzzo: Review of Albert Fliegner: Review of William McFadden Orr: Review of George Hartley Bryan: Review of Nikolay Nikolayevich Schiller: Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: Review of Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff: Review of Arturo Giammarco: Review of Karl Fredrik Slotte: Review of Emile Mathias: Review of Max Planck: Review of Edgar Buckingham: Review of Paul Langevin: In particular, it stated the two postulates of SR uniform motion is undetectable, and the speed of light is always constant and its kinematics.

Review of Heinrich Birven: Fundamentals of the Mechanical Theory of Heat. Review of Auguste Ponsot: Review of Karl Bohlin: Review of Georges Meslin: With Numerous Examples and Applications. Planck's derivation of this formula ascribed it to a restriction on the energy changes possible when radiation is produced or absorbed by matter, which implied no restriction on the energies of either matter or radiation.

Einstein's derivation ascribed it to a restriction on the energy of radiation alone, but in this paper, he proposes the modern idea that the energies of both matter and radiation are quantized, which led to his work on quantum specific heats, such as reference Lectures on the Theory of Thermal Radiation. Resolved the 19th-century paradox of the equipartition theorem in classical physics, and introduced the Einstein model of solids, which led to the current Debye model.

Resulted in a novel low-noise technique for amplifying voltages, as described in reference Bemerkung zur Notiz des Herrn P. Derives the transformation of energy and momentum under the influence of external forces relativistic dynamics. Notes again the difficulty of applying Lorentz transformations to rigid bodies see reference Finally, speculates that Maxwell's equations will prove to be the limiting case for large numbers of light-quanta, just as thermodynamics is a limiting case of statistical mechanics.

An Outline of the Theory of Heat. Special and general relativity. This paper also marks the beginning of Einstein's long development of general relativity ; here he derives the equivalence principle , gravitational redshift , and the gravitational bending of light. Einstein returns to these topics in A correction appeared in volume 27 , p. See also publication An apparatus for this amplification was constructed by two brothers, Johann Conrad Habicht and Franz Paul Habicht, in collaboration with Einstein and published in Physikalische Zeitschrift , 11 , Bemerkungen zu unserer Arbeit: Bemerkung zur Arbeit von Mirimanoff: Comment on the Paper of D.

On the Fundamental Equations Einstein argues that the physical restriction to retarded solutions is not a law, but probabilistic; Ritz states that the same restriction is the basis of the 2nd law of thermodynamics.

Notes that electromagnetic radiation must have a dual nature , at once both wave-like and particulate. Also published in the journal Deutsche physikalische Gesellschaft, Verhandlungen , 11 , pp.

An English translation is available at the English Wikisource. Guillaume, but does not correspond to reference Intermolecular forces and fluid mechanics. See also Bemerkung zu meiner Arbeit: Bemerkungen zu den P. Mechanische Grundlagen der Thermodynamik Comments on P. On the Mechanical Foundations of Thermodynamics. Berichtigung zu meiner Arbeit: A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions. The correct answer came a year later with the Debye model. Here, Einstein realizes that a new theory is needed to replace both special relativity and Newton's theory of gravitation.

He also realizes that special relativity and the equivalence principle hold locally , not globally. Special and possibly general relativity. These two papers are the last in which Einstein allows time to be warped while keeping space flat uncurved.

In these papers, he realizes that the Lorentz transformations of special relativity must be generalized and that the new theory of gravitation must be non-linear, since gravitational energy can itself gravitate.

Antwort auf eine Bemerkung von J. Erwiderung auf eine Bemerkung von M. Abraham Relativity and Gravitation. Reply to a Comment by M. Bemerkung zu Abraham's vorangehender Auseinandersetzung: Gibt es eine Gravitationswirkung die der elektromagnetischen Induktionswirkung analog ist?


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Sample Essays. Albert Einstein was a German American scientist. He is best known for his theories on relativity and theories of matter and heat. Einstein is considered one of the greatest physicists of all time because he is thought to .

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Albert Einstein Essay 21 Albert Einstein Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most of these do not understand this man's work, everyone knows that its impact on the world of science is astonishing. Essays and criticism on Albert Einstein - Critical Essays.

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Albert Einstein was the most influential scientist of our time. Despite troubles in education and learning as a child, Einstein surpassed the odds and helped revolutionize science today. With his theories on relativity and gravity, Einstein would inspire other great scientists explain the 3/5(6). Albert Einstein’s brain was taken from his head and was preserved by Thomas Harvey, who was a doctor and chief pathologist at Princeton University Hospital. Many individuals do not know that Albert Einstein had an extremely large head when he was born and many doctors believed that due to his big head he may suffer from mental retardation.