The researcher does not assign groups and does not manipulate the independent variable. Control groups are identified and exposed to the variable. Results are compared with results from groups not exposed to the variable. Experimental Designs , often called true experimentation, use the scientific method to establish cause-effect relationship among a group of variables in a research study.
Researchers make an effort to control for all variables except the one being manipulated the independent variable. The effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are collected and analyzed for a relationship. When deciding on the appropriate approach, the Decision Tree from Ebling Library may be helpful. The following video, Quantitative Research Designs, further describes the differences between quantitative research approaches and offers tips on how to decide on methodology.
Planning the Methodology — The Quantitative Pathway — The following link provides a description of the four types of quantitative approaches and examples of each. Quantitative Design — The following resource describes quantitative research approaches and exmaples. Choosing an appropriate study design — Below is a link to a presentation that describes the factors to consider when choosing the appropriate approach for quantitative research.
This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Quantitative Approaches In this module, the four approaches to quantitative research are described and examples are provided. List and explain the four approaches to quantitative research. Provide an example of each method.
Describe how to identify the appropriate approach for a particular research problem. Qualitative observations are those that use your senses. So color, smell, what it sounds like, what it feels like, etc. What are qualitative observations? What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative observations and methods and what are some examples of each?
Qualitative research involves an indepth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern human behaviour. Unlike quantitative research, qualitative research relies on reasons behind various aspects of behaviour. Simply put, it investigates the why and how of decision making, as compared to what, where, and when of quantitative research. Hence, the need is for smaller but focused samples rather than large random samples, which qualitative research categorizes data into patterns as the primary basis for organizing and reporting results.
Quantitative research is widely used in both the natural and social sciences, from physics and biology to sociology and journalism. It is also used as a way to research different aspects of education. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses pertaining to natural phenomena.
The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. The term quantitative research is most often used in the social sciences in contrast to qualitative research. The freezing point of water is colder than the boiling point. The sun is very bright.
A liter of water is heavier than a liter of ethanol. The sun's intensity on earth is W m A liter of water weighs grams and a liter of ethanol weighs grams. Above retrieved from Answers. What is qualitative research? Qualitative research has many many forms but as a general rule, itdoes not focus on numbers but rather ideas and opinions.
Commonmethods include one-to-one interviews, focus groups, onlinecommunities, and dyads. As a method, the sample sizes of one-to-oneinterviews and focus groups are often fairly small, between 5 and50 people though they can be larger. Online communities can havesample sizes in the thousands depending on how the research isdesigned.
The purpose of most qual research is hypothesisgeneration and idea generation. Qualitative research is used bymany different types of researchers including sociologists,psychologists, marketing researchers, business researchers, andmore. What is qualitative observations? A qualitative observation is- an observation of somethings characteristics What is a qualitative observastion?
An observation based on physical qualities of a noun. That dog has black fur. That man is in a trench-coat. A quantitative observation is an observation based on an amount. The dog has two eyes. The man's trench-coat has six buttons.
A Deadmau5 mau5head has two ears, two eyes, and a mouth. If you have a box full of red and blue marbles, you can qualitatively say that there are red and blue ones, but you cannot say how much of them. You only can say that there is more than one of each kind. But you wouldn't know, how much of them are blue, and how much of them are red. What is qualitative data? It is Quality such as John has red hair or the house is blue;qualitative data doesn't contain data about percentages, amounts,prices, concentrations - any quantitative information.
What is a qualitative question? A qualitative question is a question that explains what something does without using numbers. A question that is quantitative is when it actually uses numbers to describe something. What is a description? The meaning of something. A description is when you describe something. The word 'description' is a noun , a word for a spoken orwritten representation or account of someone or something; a wordfor a thing.
Conveying in words the appearance or nature of something,describing a scene or an event, a verbal picture. What is a qualitative obervation? A qualitative observation is an observation which does not require measurement. I might say "I am tall". This is a qualitative observation. What qualitications do you need to be a chef? You need to know about every thing surrounding the preparation of food.
What is qualitative changes? The phrase qualitative change refers to the change of a sound. Itcan also refer to what the basic nature of a sound is. What is a qualitative objective? A qualitative observation is an observation that describes the properties of something by using our five senses touch, taste, smell, see, and hear.
What is qualitative and quantitative? QUALitative- An observation based on your senses. QUANtitative- It is very specific using measurements and units. A qualitive observation is an observation of a product of a reaction which cannot be measured numerically, e. A quantitive observation is an observation which can be measured, e. What is qualitative measurement? This is a contradiction in terms.
If something is qualitative youessentially don't measure it. If you measure, you are doingsomething quantitative. An example of the difference is in chemical analysis. Qualitativeanalysis means to find out what something is, e. Quantitativeanalysis measures how much of a substance you have, for instancedoing a titration to measure the amount of acid in a solution.
How do you Compare quantitative and qualitative descriptions? Quantitative is basically the numbers and figures of whatever you have done. Qualitative is the verbal use, so words and descriptions for what you've done. At school, we did an experiment: So the quantitative results would be what temperature the water was, how much water there was etc. The qualitative results would be whether you felt the water was hotter or not etc.
What is a qualitative map? Maps that use colors, symbols, lines, or dots to show information related to a specific idea.
What is Qualitative and Qualitative data analysis? Qualitative data is data that holds a lot of information. Quantitative data is data that comes in a large number. What is a qualitive observations? The way I remember is by thinking of a quality of someone.
Its a characteristic of an object.. What is a qualitive data? Qualitative research uses individual in-depth interviews, focus groups or questionnaires to collect analyze and interpret data by observing what people do and say.
It reports on the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, symbols and descriptions of things. It is more subjective than quantitative research and is often exploratory and undefined.
Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials, such as case study; personal experiences; introspection; interview; observational, that describes routine and problematic moments and meanings in individuals lives. Qualitative research is concerned with developing explanations of social fact. How do you do qualitative research? What is a Qualitative Inference? Qualitative Inference is a term used to discus the idea ofconceptually moving or 'inferring' between distinct cases orsettings.
If something is Quantitative it is in the form of numbers and obtained by measurement. To time something you use a stopwatch and note down the number on the stopwatch. If something is Qualitative you do not use numbers but instead note down what you observe and try to describe it in words. When I added the Silver Nitrate to the Chloride solution a white precipitate formed.
Qualitatively refers to a type of research without numbers, but observation. Researchers must be involved constantly in data collection and analysis and communicate their results and conclusions based on their direct observations. What are the qualites for modeling? What is a qualitive analysis? Qualitative analysis produces a measured result, a set of figures, a graph whereas quantitative analysis produces a description, an observation. What does qualitative and quantitative?
Qualitative data refers to the qualities of the results. For example saying that the balls are red and bouncy and cool to the touch are qualitative observations.
Quantitative data refers to numeric quantities of the results. If you report that there are three balls, that will bounce to a level of one meter when dropped from a height of two meters, and have a surface temperature of 15 o C, you are talking quantitatively.
A good lab report or experiment will usually take both qualitative and quantitative data into account. What is a qualitative goal? A qualitative goal is something that is felt rather than measured.
An example would be I am going to exercise until I feel better as opposed to a quantitative goal such as I am going to exercise until I can run a mile in under 8 minutes.
What are qualitative traits? Eye colour, hair colour, etc. Traits that cannot be assigned a straightforward number like height or number of fingers. What is a qualitative sentence? It is a sentence that is written stating a preference or dislike ofsomething based on personal feelings, rather than an amount ofitems being referenced in a sentence.
Studies showthat people prefer the taste of Coke Zero. If you wrote thesentence as: What are the example of the qualitative?
Qualitative descriptions are generally adjectives like 'cool' or 'hot' whereas quantitative descriptions are values like '35 degrees celsius'. What is qualitative and quantitive? What is a qualitative statement? What are qualitative measurements? It is often seen as being far less accurate than quantative measurements due to the human error involved. A qualitative measurement is a type of chemical analysis which determine only the components in a compound or mixture, not the concentration of these components.
Lactose in milk - qualitative: What is a qualitative characteristics? A qualatative charectoristic is a charectoristic which measures the quality of something. Which is a qualitative measurement? Can you give me an example of qualitative research?
Chapter I Introduction Reasoning is a part and parcel of being a human, so we always tend to use it, every now and then, to justify, to answer questions, to clarify thought and in rationalizing ideas that comes to mind, experiences and result of existence.
Thus it is a ways to satisfy our craving in seeking to what is the reality and specially the search for truth and wisdom, that we are trying to understand in this world. Reasoning is a great tool in knowing and exploring out the world and especially in finding our purpose and meaning of our existence and the tool in knowing the truth and identifying errors, half-truths and refuting them.
But let us not forget the limitations that the mind has. That there are things in this world that we could not really grasp or even imagine with our own capacity in thinking. Simply implying that human mind is finite and has its own limitation and capacity, there will come apart that we cannot completely comprehend with the use reason alone. There comes Obscurity and vagueness in our mind in what have been discovered, saw, explore and etc in this world.
Even exhausting the resources of all human sciences, it cannot really grasp the totality of it, for no human science cannot be perfect and exact all the time in the realms of the nature of truth. For there are things that our mind cannot really comprehend and beyond its capacity. Reasoning by the use of the heart is truly needed and a new way, in a sense that it is not commonly used than human sciences in reaching the infinite wisdom.
A wisdom or a knowledge so to speak, that is incomprehensible by the human level of reasoning. For sometimes believing is the best approach that you can do. But not it a sense of believing blindly; rather, not neglecting the use of mind. For the Heart is not only a mere intuition or expression of the human person that is opposing towards the logical reasoning of man. Certain objects only become given in the act of the heart. But they do not remain there in a rational intuition, but are accessible to intellectual and rational penetration.
It is in vain to understand everything with the use of reason alone. The maxim of Pascal of accepting the reality of the limitation of the mind and the use of the heart is an idea that is somewhat obscure to the understanding of people. Specially people, who are exposed in the discovery of lot of the human sciences that is in our world. In this study the researcher aims in making a vivid exposition of what really is this heart and its uniqueness. Thus enabling us to see how these kind of reasoning be connected in the formation of the candidates for Priesthood.
It to answer the following questions. Who is Blaise Pascal and what is his Philosophical thought? What is the reasoning of the heart Pascal's Reason?
What is the paradox between reason and Pascal's reason? What is the Seminary Formation 5. How can Pascal's reason can be link in the seminary formation? Significance of the Study This study aims at providing an idea of what really is the characteristic and differentiation of reason mind and heart's reason faith , in the primary view of Blaise Pascal way.
Using the heart as an other way in what should be known, consequently in searching the truth not only in the use of reason or the mind. But also by the heart to offer a ground in understanding its uniqueness and in discovering the truths, thus deriving to an idea to see its aid in search for the truth. Its specific relevance may be to the people who seeks for the reality and truth, that resolves to explore beyond the capacity of the natural level of the human reason.
To see the insufficiency of the pool of knowledge that we have, thus being reminded to search for another ways of find out the truth without neglecting or throwing up the ways. For they are formed not only with the use of mind and and other aspect of formation, but with the use of the heart.
Also to let them realized the limitations and shortcomings of the mind. Thus it is significant in the sense that it will help seminarians in their formation, not only in the intellectual aspect but in over-all.
For they are not only depending with the use of mind, but also they listens to what our hearts trying to tell us. Seminarians maybe guided in how to check the reality and in how to determine the limitations that our mind has. Formation is a lifelong process and not all the time mind in the best choice, therefore it signifies also not taking it for granted the heart.
Scope and Delimitation Knowing the difference between the heart and the mind or the reason and faith through the reason that is presented by Blaise Pascal, and linking it towards the formation of the candidates for Priesthood or the Seminary Formation. Seeing the connection of the heart's reason, rationalizing in the sense of using the natural level, and going to the next level of it, that is going beyond the natural level of knowledge with the aid of heart's reasoning.
Reasoning and knowing its limitation, and linking it towards seminary formation. Delimiting the study in the presentation of Blasie Pascal and limiting its concepts and ideas in connecting it towards the seminary formation.
They could be the Priest, teachers, Bishops, and etc.. Heart - is conceived as the center of the human personality. The heart includes thoughts, feelings and will and represents the whole personality in its inmost being.
It integrates every energy of a man in the service of a cause to which he owes allegiance. But if one believes and it turns out to be false then one has lost a little, if anything therefor unless the probability of God's existence is infinite. Rational Knowledge - entails ideas, facts and knowledge that comes to the natural level of thinking, that reason alone could suffice and could grasp.
Making some inferences and discovering and knowing something in the level that is not beyond the capacity of the human mind. Reason - is a discursive thought of the mind naturally that connects ideas consciously, coherently and purposively.
Seminary Formation - A structure that is purposely created by the Church for the sole aim of forming young men towards priesthood, Supra-Rational Knowledge - it is beyond the natural level that reason could not fully grasp, but with the use of the reasoning of the heart, it is a knowledge that is not only rooted in the rational level and thus exceeds toward the another realms of the knowledge that is beyond the physical aspect and beyond the capacity of the mind.
In this study it is technically used as a Priestly call, and a call towards a venture in the seminary formation gong to Priesthood. Wager - it is used by Blaise Pascal in his famous exposition, to see whether God exist or not, hence it is a person that is a gambler who will risk to bet on; whether in Choosing God is or not and without the use of the reason. Where it is the Primary person who represents the idea of Pascal in proving God's existence.
Methodology The Library Method research was used in this study. The Library method of research is a fact finding study that focuses in garnering interpretations and finding through the books and other reading materials.
It describes what is, the study all about. It describes with emphasis in what actually the mind and norms of certain person and institution through the books, with emphasis through their writings, such as rules, exposition and concepts. Since the study or investigation was concerned in knowing Pascal's reason and linking it in the context of Seminary Formation.
Library method was the most suitable method to be use in this study. Biography Blaise Pascal French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. A mathematical prodigy, Pascal published his discoveries on the theory of conic sections at the age of sixteen.
He invented the first practicable calculating machine, in , while his experimental and mathematical work on the barometer affords a model of midth-century science and methodology. His celebrated correspondence with Pierre Fermat laid the basis of the modern theory of probability. Pascal's family were associated with the Jansenists of Port-Royal where his sister was a nun.
After a profound religious experience in , Pascal turned to philosophy and theology. His Lettres provinciales are a defense of Arnalaud against his Jesuit opponents, but in spite of his efforts the two Port-Royal convents were closed in Both were published posthumously, and the latter, existing only in fragments, not given a definitive edition until Because of his prevailing scepticism, coupled, however, with a deep faith, Pascal has been compared to Kierkegaard as a leading example of religious conviction based on existential commitment and faith rather than on reason.
Like Berkley, Pascal had a deep concern for the poor, and founded the first ever public bus service, whose profit she gave to charity.
Pascal's Wager, of course, depends on their only two choices - no god, or there is God. So it manifest the choice of the bet of a wager whether to go with there is a God to get a great reward, if there is and looses a little or even nothing if God does not exist. Also to go with there is no God, and if the wager is wrong, he must suffer the consequence of hell and eternal punishment and condemnation.
Pascal argues that the expected value of theistic belief is vastly greater that that of unbelief, since if one believes, and commits oneself to a life of faith in God etc.. But if one believes and it turns to be false then one has lost a little, if anything. Therefore unless the probability of God's existence is infinite, it is rational to adopt theistic belief. The key whether we believe in it or not is up to us, but it is somehow created and being consider as an example not as only a rationale for mere deception but as a reason for getting ourselves to believe genuinely.
Such classical example which is used by Pascal to profess his faith to God. Thus it is true that there is an infinite number, but we do not know what it is. It is untrue that it is even, untrue it is odd, for by adding a unit it does not change its nature.
Yet it is number, and every number is even or odd. Is there no substantial truth, seeing that there are so many things which are not truth itself? Thus we know the existence and nature of the finite because we too are finite and extended in space. We know the existence of the infinite without knowing its nature, because it too has extension but unlike us no limit.
But we do not know either the existence or the nature of God, because he has neither extension nor limits. But by faith we know his existence, through glory we shall know his nature. Thus, Pascal proves that the real existence of the infinite is possible.
Such as there is a number that is infinite and as a consequence of being a eternal, we could not really grasp the infinite. Thus we cannot really grasp the infinite by the use of our reason alone or rational knowledge is finite and limited in its sources and it is unbearable for the reason to grasp what he cannot really totally grasp.
It is in vain for reason to do it alone, but by faith we could know the existence of the infinite.
The purpose of this article is to introduce you to the three different types of quantitative research question (i.e., descriptive, comparative and relationship-based research questions) so that you can understand what type(s) of quantitative research question you want to create in your dissertation.
Descriptive research seeks to describe the current status of an identified variable. These research projects are designed to provide systematic information about a phenomenon. The researcher does not usually begin with an hypothesis, but is likely to develop one after collecting data.
There are four main types of quantitative research designs: descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental and experimental. The differences between the four types primarily relates to the degree the researcher designs for control of the variables in the experiment. Descriptive research design is a valid method for researching specific subjects and as a precursor to more quantitative studies. Whilst there are some valid concerns about the statistical validity, as long as the limitations are understood by the researcher, this type of study is an invaluable scientific tool.
Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality. Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Before considering the advantages and disadvantages of descriptive research, it is helpful to review descriptive research and the terms associated with it, as well as be introduced to a discussion of the most commonly discussed advantages and disadvantages. Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative .