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Hindi essay on if was no language. Hindi essay on if there were no computer. Hindi essay on if i were the freedom fighter. English essay on kedarnath disaster in hindi. English words essay on disaster management. English essay on natural disaster in hindi. The plates that are moving past over one another are slowed by friction along their boundaries. Due to this, the rocks are under strain. When the stress on the rocks exceeds certain limits, the rocks rupture and form a fault along which the rocks are displaced during tectonic movements.
This sudden rupture of the rocks releases energy in the form of earthquake waves Fig. Thus earthquake is a form of energy, which is transmitted to the surface of the earth in the form of waves called seismic waves. Scientists who study earthquakes are called seismologists.
The instrument that records the seismic waves is called seismograph. The exact spot under the earth surface at which an earthquake originates is called the focus or hypocenter. The point on the earth surface above the focus is called the epicenter.
The Richter scale is used to measure the intensity of earthquakes. The intensity is measured on a scale of 0 to 8 and above Table The destruction, an earthquake causes, depends on its magnitude and duration or the amount of shaking that occurs.
In the last years, earthquakes around the world have killed several million people. Earthquake is one of the most catastrophic natural disasters. Massive loss of life and property occurs due to collapse of buildings. Besides, roads, bridges, canals, electric poles, etc. Certain regions of the earth are more prone to earthquakes.
These are places located in the unstable regions of the earth crust, which are subjected to tectonic activities. This is the main cause of destruction in which buildings, bridges, roads, canals and other structures are damaged. Earthquakes make sands and silts to transform from a solid to liquid state. This also results in building collapse.
It is a major hazard associated with earthquakes. The shakings of the ground and building damage often break the gas pipes and electric lines that cause fires. Tsunamis are massive sea waves that are mainly caused due to earthquakes in the ocean floor or possibly due to an undersea landslide or volcanic eruption. When the ocean floor is tilted or offset during an earthquake a set of waves is created similar to the concentric waves generated by an object dropped into the water. These waves are massive in size and gain height as they approach the seashore.
Tsunamis up to the height of 30 m are recorded Fig. Tsunamis are the most catastrophic among natural disasters as they affect a very wide geographical area. Despite the advances made by modem science, the exact time and place where an earthquake may strike cannot be predicted. Hence, the occurrence of an earthquake cannot be prevented. However, there are certain regions that are earthquakes prone and so the administration must work before hand to minimize the damages due to occurrence of earthquakes in such areas.
The control and mitigation measures in earthquake prone regions include hazard reduction programmes, development of critical facilities and proper land use planning. Establishment of specific health care units for treating earthquake injuries Proper land use planning. Buildings such as schools, hospitals, offices, etc. Floods are one of the most common natural disasters occurring in many parts of the world every year.
Floods occur due to heavy rainfall within a short duration of time in a particular region which causes the rivers and streams to overflow. Since most of the precipitation occurs within span of two to three months during the rainy season, most floods occur during that time.
The floods in the mountainous regions due to cloudbursts or damming of streams are referred to as flash-floods. In flash-floods, the water drains away quickly but only after causing extensive damage. The plain areas of a region which are drained by a number of rivers, are the places most affected by floods. The Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers and their tributaries are most susceptible to floods.
However, heavy rains cause occasional floods in parts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Flooding, in India, is a major problem and some part or the other is affected by the fury of floods usually during the months from July to September. Floods cause untold miseries to the affected regions in the form of huge losses of life and property. There is great damage to agriculture and livestock. Flood affected areas face acute shortages of food and drinking water.
Besides, floods cause a number of water borne diseases such as diarrhea, gastroenteritis, jaundice, malaria, etc. Though the lives lost in floods may not be as high as in case of earthquakes or cyclones, the damage to the environment is immense.
The problem is further aggravated if the floods last for a longer duration of time. Floods not only damage property and endanger if lives of humans and animals, but have other effects as well, such as: Manmade structures like buildings, bridges, roads, sewer lines, power lines, etc.
Though floods are a natural hazard, it is sometimes intensified due to undesirable human activities. The measures that can be taken to control the extent of flood damage include land use planning, building of physical barriers, preventing human encroachment and use of technology for relief.
Afforestation on the upper reaches of the river catchment areas to control soil erosion and excessive runoff. Drought is a condition of abnormally dry weather within a geographic region. Drought refers to the lack or insufficiency of rain for an extended period of time in a specific region. During droughts, rainfall is less than normal causing a water imbalance and resultant water shortage.
It occurs when the rate of evaporation and transpiration exceeds precipitation for a considerable period. Drought should not be confused with dry climate, as in the Sahara or Thar Desert.
It is marked by an unusual scarcity of water and food for the humans as well as animals. Certain regions of the world, such as parts of Central Africa, are characterized by low amount of rainfall resulting in perennial drought-like conditions. Some part of India is often affected by drought even during the rainy season. As India is primarily an agricultural country, droughts cause untold miseries to the common people. Many Indian farmers are still totally dependent on rainfall for irrigation and because of abnormally dry spells there is extensive crop damage.
However, sometimes drought-like conditions also prevail in the Gangetic Plain also. The severity of the drought is gauged by the degree of moisture deficiency, its duration, and the size of the area affected. If the drought is brief, it is known as a dry spell or partial drought. Soil degradation and erosion occurs. Soil cracks because of shrinkage during desiccation Fig. Rains are caused by a number of natural factors like air currents, wind direction, etc. Thus, droughts are a natural phenomenon, beyond human control and prevention.
Though, global warming may have changed the pattern of rainfall in the recent times. In modem times, by the use of satellites, we can predict the weather pattern over a particular area. Drought-like conditions can be overcome by better water harvesting techniques. Certain precautions can be taken in drought prone areas, which relate to management of water resources, proper agricultural techniques and relief by different agencies.
Proper irrigation techniques, such as drip and trickle irrigation that minimize the use of water. Cyclone is an area of low atmospheric pressure surrounded by a wind system blowing in anti-clockwise direction, formed in the northern hemisphere.
In common terms, cyclone can be described as a giant circular storm system. Cyclones generate in the seas and oceans and move with a very high speed towards the land. Cyclones form when moisture evaporates from the warm oceans during the hot season. The air rises, condenses and gathers momentum as it moves over the ocean.
Due to the extreme low pressure in the centre, more and more air rushes inwards and it grows to a considerable size and intensity. It strikes the land with a devastating force and gradually withers off on land when they are cut from their source of ocean moisture. Cyclones are named variously depending on their source of origin. They are called hurricanes in the Atlantic, typhoons in the Pacific, cyclones in the Indian Ocean and willy-willies aroimd Australia.
Bangladesh has been devastated by cyclones a number of times. In November , a severe cyclone caused a 6 m rise in sea-level and the consequent flooding killed approximately three lakh people. Another cyclone in killed more than one lakh people.
Aug 08, · A disaster is a hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. Disasters fall into two major categories. These include man made and natural railblogau5.gq: All Essay.
Types of disasters Natural disaster Man made disaster Natural disaster A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural hazard affects humans and/or the built environment. Eg: earthquake, flood, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods and cyclones are all natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year.
Man Made Disasters. Essay on “MAN-MADE CALAMITIES V/S NATURAL CALAMITIES” People of the world have always faced both types of disasters, natural as well as man-made. Man-made disasters were not prevalent in ancient times. Man-made disasters are the . Nov 25, · free encyclopedia Anthropogenic hazards or human-made hazards can result in the form of a human-made disaster. In this case, anthropogenic means threats having an element of human intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure of a human- made system.
Disaster Ruins from the San Francisco earthquake, remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in United States history A disaster is a natural or man-made (or Words 3 Pages. Disaster is a very common occurrence to the human society. Though its form may be diverse, it has been a challenge for society across castes, creeds, communities and countries. Disasters mainly divided into two most important categories. These include manmade and natural disasters.