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❶Reliability Reliability relates to the consistency of a measure. Test—retest reliability is assessed when an instrument is given to the same participants more than once under similar circumstances.

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What is Reliability?
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Almost certainly the answer is "No, it is not. The answer depends on the amount of research support for such a relationship. Internal validity - the instruments or procedures used in the research measured what they were supposed to measure.

As part of a stress experiment, people are shown photos of war atrocities. After the study, they are asked how the pictures made them feel, and they respond that the pictures were very upsetting. In this study, the photos have good internal validity as stress producers. External validity - the results can be generalized beyond the immediate study.

In order to have external validity, the claim that spaced study studying in several sessions ahead of time is better than cramming for exams should apply to more than one subject e. It should also apply to people beyond the sample in the study. Different methods vary with regard to these two aspects of validity.

Experiments, because they tend to be structured and controlled, are often high on internal validity. However, their strength with regard to structure and control, may result in low external validity.

Actual level of intelligence Error: Caused by factors including current mood, level of fatigue, general health, luck in guessing answers to questions you don't know Impact of error on scores: Would expect measurements of IQ to be a few points up and down of your actual IQ, not to points, for example i.

By comparison, where the error component within a measurement procedure is relatively large , the scores that are obtained over a number of measurements will be relatively inconsistent ; that is, there will be large differences in the scores between measurements.

As such, we can say that the measurement procedure is not reliable. Reaction time by measuring the speed of pressing a button when a light bulb goes on i.

Actual reaction speed of person Error: Potential for time to be significantly different from one measurement to the next e. Take multiple measurements rather than a single measurement, and then average the scores. You can learn more about reliability , error and reaction times by reading Yellott , Ratcliff , and Salthouse and Hedden All measurement procedures involve error. When the amount of error is low , the reliability of the measurement is high. Conversely, when the amount of error is large , the reliability of the measurement is low.

However, there are solutions to help improve measurement procedures that may be prone to large error components. Internal validity and reliability are at the core of any experimental design. External validity is the process of examining the results and questioning whether there are any other possible causal relationships. Control groups and randomization will lessen external validity problems but no method can be completely successful.

This is why the statistical proofs of a hypothesis called significant , not absolute truth. Any scientific research design only puts forward a possible cause for the studied effect. There is always the chance that another unknown factor contributed to the results and findings. This extraneous causal relationship may become more apparent, as techniques are refined and honed. If you have constructed your experiment to contain validity and reliability then the scientific community is more likely to accept your findings.

Eliminating other potential causal relationships, by using controls and duplicate samples, is the best way to ensure that your results stand up to rigorous questioning. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:.

Martyn Shuttleworth Oct 20, Retrieved Sep 11, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution.

Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Martyn Shuttleworth K reads.

Reliability in research

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Validity and reliability in social science research items can first be given as a test and, subsequently, on the second occasion, the odd items as the alternative form.

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The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm. Since reliability and validity are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in .

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Reliability in research Reliability, like validity, is a way of assessing the quality of the measurement procedure used to collect data in a dissertation. In order for the results from a study to be considered valid, the measurement procedure must first be reliable. PDF | On Jan 1, , Roberta Heale and others published Validity and reliability in quantitative research For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to .

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4 Reliability & Validity-7 Internal Consistency: Homogeneity Is a measure of how well related, but different, items all measure the same thing. Is applied to groups of items thought to measure different aspects of the same concept. A single item taps only one aspect of a concept. If several different items are used to gain information. Internal validity dictates how an experimental design is structured and encompasses all of the steps of the scientific research method. Even if your results are great, sloppy and inconsistent design will compromise your integrity in the eyes of the scientific community. Internal validity and reliability are at the core of any experimental design.