A shrine was prepared for the celebration. It was also decorated with paper flowers. The canopy above the shrine was made of coloured cloths. Another big canopy was put up in the open ground in front of our house. An electrician with his four assistants decorated the closed space with a number of multi-coloured electric lamps. The space was meant for the marriage feast. Rows of tables were arranged on three sides. The tables were covered with white sheets of cloth.
On one side chairs were arranged for the guests. Sweets were made and kept for the guests. The feast on the date of marriage was very delicious. My parents were very busy. My aunt and uncle were also terribly engaged in different works. Our relatives were making our house a noisy place. The ladies were busy with religious ceremonies.
Two cooks were engaged to prepare the dinner for the guests and the bridegroom party members. Cold- drinks were ready. My cousin put on her bridal dress. Her friends adorned her as much as they could. She looked like a fairy in her new dress. Now the guests started pouring in. They were served with light refreshment.
All now eagerly awaited the arrival of the marriage party. Soon there was heard the sound of the band at a distance. At last the marriage party arrived. The band played a sweet tune. The members of the marriage party were garlanded. The bridegroom was on a white decorated mare. He was made to get off the horse just at the gate.
My aunt performed the Aarti. My cousin dressed in the scarlet clothes garlanded her would-be husband. The marriage party was served with a grand dinner. Most of the guests present at the time of the reception took leave of my uncle and went away.
After the dinner most of the members of the marriage party did not stay for die night. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters.
When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place.
To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place.
Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females.
Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty.
So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity.
It is stimulated by novelty. In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children.
According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife.
Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care.
In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate.
Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children.
In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives.
Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society.
Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of affection among the members.
As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc.
Polyandry is of two types:. In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon Srilanka at present.
In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families.
The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found.
For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population.
Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children.
In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture.
All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas.
It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family.
Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the family.
The marriage ceremony was held after the reception. The priest chanted sholkas from the Vedas. Many senior members including my parents and the parents of the groom were present at the time of the holy marriage on the shrine.
The ceremony was performed at night before the sacred fire with the chanting of the Vedic Mantras. In the morning the marriage party left for their home town with the bride. My uncle gave a rich dowry.
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